In physics, the idea of a "potential" is very poorly defined, if at
all. The normal "definition" for the electrostatic scalar potential,
for example, is not a definition at all. Instead, itís an abstract operation
that tells how to mathematically calculate the magnitude of the
potential, by pushing a unit charge in from infinity, against the potential
Now ultimately a definition must be an identity statement, not an operational
statement about something.
Since I could find hardly anyone who actually understood what a potential
was, and how or of what it was composed, I simply took quantum mechanics at face
value and constructed this model.
First, the modern view of the vacuum is that it is not an emptiness, but a
plenum. Itís teeming with an incredible amount of raw energy, existing totally
as the temporary bits of energy of virtual
particles. That is, the vacuum
"energy" exists as the nonintegrated energies of little
particles which appear from nothing fare spontaneously created) and disappear
into nothing (are spontaneously annihilated) almost instantly. This happens so
fast that the little particle and its energy cannot individually be detected; it
doesnít hang around long enough.
Hence the fleeting little booger is called a "virtual" particle.
Like, "We had íim there, man, for just a moment, but he was gone before we
could grab íim!"
This kind of ghostly particle, however, is very real in modern physics. All
observable forces are theorized to be due to the integration or collection of a
large number of virtual forces created by exchange of these little particles.
However, this implies a peculiar thing about the vacuum energy."
Actually itís vacuum energies, for each little bit of energy only exists
momentarily, Then returns to the nothingness from which it came. That is, vacuum
virtual energies are totally unintegrated. Each "bit" of virtual
energy exists individually. These virtual energies cannot be "added
up" to compute the "available energy" unless some collector or
integrating mechanism puts them together.
That is, unless some kind of "zipper" is there to "zip them
together" into macroscopic, observable energy. The usual
"zipper" is a spinning, observable particle of mass. We say that the
vacuum energy is unzipped and hence unobservable in that state. We say
that "observable energy" is just zipped-together vacuum energies --
integrated by and on a spinning, observable particle of mass.
So the vacuum can be visualized as a
special sort of violent, unzipped
plasma, where the particles of the plasma are fleeting and do not last.
We can speak of it also as a sort of special unzipped gas, in
the same manner.
The "pressure" of the vacuum gas we refer to as "stress."
Due to its violent boiling activity, the vacuum gas is always under very high
This "stressed virtual plasma" identically IS the vacuum and
identically IS spacetime. Length, time, frame, mass, etc. -- all arise by
zipping operations (or understood zipping operations) in and of this raw
vacuum/spacetime. When one uses the vacuum notion in this manner, one now uses
the term "ether" again. However, this is not the old "thin
material ether that hangs around"; this is an entirely new kind. Itís a
virtual flux and a virtual plasma.
The ether is also what we call "spacetime" in relativity. As can be
seen, spacetime is stressed. Further, spacetime has a substructure.
By an uncurved spacetime, we mean one in which the stress of these virtual
particles (the "pressure in the ethereal gas," so to speak) is
constant from one place to another and from one time to another. Indeed, we also
should mean that the stresses of the individual components of the entire plasma
are constant from one place to another and from one time to another.
By definition, when we determine the lengths between every two points, we
determine a frame. (Actually, we have prescribed a universal "length
zipping" operation/mechanism as well as its characteristics.). A
"linear frame" or "Lorentz frame" is one in which the
pressure or stress remains constant. It may be higher than ambient vacuum,
however, due to a particleís or an objectís motion through the observerís ether.
In the case of constant velocity, the particle/object encounters a higher level
of virtual particle flux in the observerís ether, like a vehicle moving through
raindrops. It encounters a constant rate of flux, however. In such constant
velocity case, the moving objectís frame is said to be "rotated," but
not curved, with respect to the laboratory frame of the observer.
In a "curved" spacetime, we mean one in which the stress of vacuum
increases or decreases from one place to another, or from one time to
or both. At one fixed location, if spacetime is curved, then the stress
increasing or decreasing as a function of time. That is, the flux
that area is changing. We may visualize the local frame as undergoing
angular acceleration, rotating more or rotating less. This is a
non-Lorentz frame, or
curved spacetime. It is also a nonlinear vacuum.
In such a vacuum, local gradients exist in the flux of virtual particles. If
affected by (coupled to) one or more of these gradients by a nonzero
coefficient, a local object experiences effects (forces and actions)
"without observable cause." Observably, conservation laws may be
locally violated by these "virtual rivers" of vacuum by coupling, just
as a paddlewheel dipped in a river violates its own local "conservation of
energy" due to the river providing an energy source to it.
One must be very careful with the "pressure" analogy, however, when
one utilizes unified theory (Kaluza theory). We now have a virtual plasma vacuum
in five dimensions, not four. But the basic notions to enable our visualization
and understanding still apply.