Silvia Cattori: Your book about NATO’s Secret Armies  explains that the strategy of tension  and the False Flag terrorism 
imply great dangers. It teaches us how NATO - together with the
intelligence services or the West European countries and the Pentagon -
utilised secret armies during the Cold War, hired spies among the
extreme right wing, and organized terrorist acts for which they blamed
the left. Becoming aware of this, we can wonder about what is likely to
happen today behind our back.
It is extremely important to understand what the strategy of tension
truly represents the way it works nowadays. This can help us clarify
the present and to see more clearly to what extent it is still in
action. Only a few people know what the expression ’strategy of
tension’ means. It is very important to talk about it, to explain it.
It is a tactic that involves carrying out criminal acts and attributing
them to someone else. By the term ’tension’, we mean emotional tension,
all that which creates a feeling of tension.
By ’strategy’ we make reference to that which increases people’s
fear in regard to a determined group. These secret structures of NATO
had been equipped, financed and trained by the CIA, in coordination
with the M16 (the British secret service), to fight against the Army of
the Soviet Union in a case of war, but also according to the
information to which he have access today, to commit terrorist acts in
several countries .
That is how, since the 70s, the Italian secret services have been using
these armies to foment terrorist attacks, with the purpose of causing
fear among the population, and later, to accuse the communists of being
the authors. The strategy of tension was designed to serve the purpose
or discrediting, weakening and stopping communism from reaching
Silvia Cattori: To
learn what it means is one thing. But it is still difficult to believe
that our government could have let NATO, the West European intelligence
agencies and the CIA act in such a way that could threaten their own
NATO was at the core of this clandestine network linked to terror; the
Clandestine Planning Committee (CPC) and the Allied Clandestine
Committee (ACC) were two substructures of the Atlantic Alliance, and
they are clearly identified today. But, now that this has been
established, it is still hard to know who was doing what. There are not
any documents proving who was at the head, who organized the strategy
of tension, how NATO, the West European intelligence services, the CIA,
M16, and the hired terrorists among the extreme right, distributed each
other’s roles. The only certainty that we have is that there was,
inside these clandestine structures, some elements that used the
strategy of tension. The terrorists from the extreme right have
explained in their statements that it was NATO’s secret services that
had supported them in this clandestine war. But when we ask for
explanations from some members of the CIA or NATO - which I have done
for many years - they limit themselves to say that it could be possible
that a few criminal elements might have managed to avoid control.
Silvia Cattori: Were these secret armies active in every Western European country?
In my research, I put forward evidence that these secret armies not
only existed in Italy, but also in all Western Europe: in France,
Belgium, The Netherlands, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Turkey,
Spain, Portugal, Austria, Switzerland, Greece, Luxembourg and Germany.
In the beginning, we thought that there existed only one
guerrilla-structured organization, and therefore, that all these secret
armies had participated in the strategy of tension, and therefore, in
terrorist acts. However, it is important to know that not all these
secret armies have been involved in attacks, and to understand what
What appears to be clear today, is that NATO’s clandestine structures, usually called ’Stay Behind groups’ ,
were created in the beginning to act as a guerrilla in case of an
occupation of Western Europe by the Soviet Union. The United States
stated that the guerrilla networks were necessary to overcome the lack
of preparedness of the countries attacked by Germany.
Several of the countries that were occupied by the Germans, like
Norway, wanted to learn the lessons of their incapacity to resist the
occupier, and they said to themselves that, in case of a new
occupation, they had to be better prepared, to have another option at
hand and to count with a secret army in case that the official one were
to be defeated. Inside these secret armies, there were honest people,
sincere patriots, who only wanted to defend their countries from an
Silvia Cattori: If
I understand well, these Stay Behind groups, whose original goal was to
be prepared in case of a Soviet invasion, have been deviated from that
goal and were reorganised to defeat the left. From that, it is
difficult to understand why the left parties have not investigated this
or denounced this earlier.
When we take the case of Italy, it appears that, every time that the
communist party has interviewed the government to find an explanation
about the secret army that was operating in this country under the
coded name of Gladio , there was never any answer, under the pretext that it was a ’state secret’. It wasn’t until 1990 that Giulio Andreotti  recognised the existence of Gladio and its direct links with NATO, the CIA, and M16 .
_ It is also during that time that the judge Felice Casson was able to
prove that the true author of the bombing in Peteano in 1972, that had
shocked Italy, and that had been attributed up to that moment to the
extreme left militants, was Vincenzo Vinciguerra, linked to ’Ordine
Nuovo’, a group of the extreme right wing. Vinciguerra avoided blame
for the bombing in Peteano with the help of the Italian secret
services. Vinciguerra also spoke about the existence of this secret
army, Gladio. He explained that, during the Cold War, these clandestine
acts had caused the death of women and children .
He stated as well that this secret army controlled by NATO, had
branches all around Europe. When this information was released, there
was a political crisis in Italy. And it is thanks to the investigations
of the judge Felice Casson that we got to know about NATO’s secret
In Germany, when in 1990 the SPDs
(German Social Democrat Partisans) became aware that in their country -
as well as in all the other European countries - there was a secret
army, and that this structure was linked to the German secret services,
they loudly denounced it as a scandal and accused the Christian
democratic Party (CDU). This party reacted by saying: "If you accuse
us, we are going to say that, you too, together with Willy Brandt, you
have been involved in this conspiracy". This happened at the same time
as the first elections of the reunified Germany, which the SPD hoped to
win. The leaders of the SPD understood that that was not a good
electoral subject; in the end, the story was twisted in such a way as
to make the existence of these secret armies seem justified.
In the European Parliament, in November 1990, many members
exclaimed that the existence of such clandestine armies could not be
tolerated and that the European people needed to know the true origin
of terrorist acts and that an inquiry was needed. Therefore, the
European Parliament wrote a complaint to NATO and to president George
Bush Senior. But nothing was done. It is only in Italy, Belgium and
Switzerland that there have been public queries. And they are the only
three countries that have set some order in this subject, and that have
published a report about their secret armies.
Silvia Cattori: What
about today ? Are these secret armies still active? Is it possible that
there exist secret national structures which escape the control of each
For a historian, it is difficult to answer that question. We haven’t
got an official report of each country. In my books, I analyse some
facts that I can prove. Concerning Italy, there is a report stating
that the secret army Gladio has been destroyed. About the existence of
the secret army P26 in Switzerland, a report was also issued by the
Parliament, in November 1990. Therefore, these clandestine armies,
which had stocked explosives in hidden places everywhere in
Switzerland, have been dissolved.
But in the other countries, nothing was done. In France, while
president François Mitterrand stated that all that belonged to the
past, we discovered later that these secret structures had always been
present when Giulio Andreotti suggested that the French president was
lying: "You say that the secret armies do not exist anymore; but,
during 1990’s secret meeting in the autumn, you, the French, were also
present; don’t say that this doesn’t exist anymore." Mitterrand became
quite angry with this Andreotti because, after this revelation, he was
forced to rectify his statement. Later, the head of the French secret
services, admiral Pierre Lacoste, confirmed that these secret armies
existed in France as well, and that France had also been involved in
terrorist attacks. .
It is therefore difficult to say whether all this has been solved or
not. And, even if the Gladio structures have been dissolved, new armies
might have been created, still utilizing this technique of the strategy
of tension and the False flags.
Silvia Cattori: Can
we speculate that, after the fall of the USSR, the United States and
NATO have continued developing the strategy of tension and of the false
flags in other fronts?
My research is based in the period of the Cold War in Europe. But it is
known that there have also been false flags in other places, where the
States’ responsibility was proved. For example: the Iran bombings in
1953, for which the communist Iranians were blamed at first. So it
happened that the CIA and the Mi6 had used some agents provocateurs to
orchestrate the overthrow of Mohammed Mossadegh’s administration,
within the framework of the war, to control the oil. Another example:
the bombings in Egypt, in 1954, for which the Muslims were accused
first. It was proved later that, in what was called the Lavon
it was the agents of Mossad who had been the perpetrators. This time,
it was for Israel to stop the British troops from leaving Egypt, to
make them stay there, and also to ensure the protection of Israel.
Therefore, we have examples in history showing that the strategy of
tension and the false flags have been used by the US, Great Britain and
Israel. Given that throughout their history other countries have also
used the same strategy, the research must continue in these fields.
Silvia Cattori: These
clandestine structures of NATO, created after the Second World War, to
supply the European countries with a guerrilla capable of resisting the
Soviet invasion, ended up serving nothing but to build criminal
operations against the European Citizens? Everything leads to the
thought that the United States have another purpose!
You are right in raising this question. The United States were
interested in the political control. This political control is an
essential element of Washington and London’s strategy. General Geraldo
Serravalle, at the head of Gladio, the Italian network Stay-behind,
gives an example of this in his book. He tells us that he understood
that the United States were not interested in the preparation of the
guerrillas against an eventual Soviet invasion, when he saw that, what
interested the CIA agents who went to the training exercises of the
secret army that he was leading, was to make sure that the army worked,
could control the communist militants. Their fear was that the
communists took the power in countries such a Greece, Italy and France.
Therefore, the strategy of tension was meant to serve that purpose: to
orient and influence the politics of certain countries of Western
Silvia Cattori: You
have talked about an important emotional factor in the strategy of
tension. Therefore, the terror, whose origin is vague, uncertain, the
fear that it causes, all that helps to manipulate the public opinion.
Are we not assisting today to the same kind of procedure? Yesterday, we
fuelled the fear of communism, today aren’t we fuelling the fear of
Yes, there is a very clear parallel. During the planning of the war in
Iraq, it was said that Saddam Hussein had biological weapons in his
possession, that there was a link between Iraq and the Al-Qaeda
terrorists. But none of that turned out to be true. By means of these
lies, it was intended to make people believe that Muslims wanted to
spread terrorism all around, and that this war was necessary to fight
against terror. However, the true reason for this war is the control of
energy resources. This is due to the fact that the geology, the
richness in gas and oil, are concentrated in the Muslim countries. He
who wants to monopolize them, must hide behind this type of
We cannot say that there is not a lot of oil left because the global production - the ’peak oil’ 
- is going to arrive probably before 2020, and that therefore oil must
be taken from Iraq, because people would say that children must not be
killed to obtain oil. And they are right. They can’t be told, either,
that in the Caspian Sea there are huge reserves and that there is a
plan to create a pipeline that would go to the Indian Ocean but, given
that it’s is not allowed to go through the South of Iran or the North
of Russia, it must pass through the East, Turkmenistan and Afghanistan,
and therefore, this country must be under control. That is why Muslims
are labelled as "terrorists". It is all a big lie, but if it is
repeated a thousand times that Muslims are "terrorists", people will
end up believing it and thinking that the wars against Muslims are
useful; and to forget that there are several types of terrorism, that
violence is not necessarily a feature of Islam.
Silvia Cattori: So, these clandestine structures might have well been dissolved, but the strategy of tension continues?
Exactly. The structures might have been dissolved, and other ones could
have been formed. It is important to explain how, in the strategy of
tension, the tactic and manipulation work. None of that is legal. But,
for the governments, it is easier to manipulate people than to tell
them that they are trying to get hold of somebody else’s oil.
Nevertheless, not all these attacks arise from the strategy of tension.
But it is difficult to know which ones are the manipulated attacks.
Even those who know the amount of attacks that have been manipulated by
the governments to discredit a political enemy, can be confronted by a
psychological obstacle. After every bombing, people are afraid, they
feel confused. It is very difficult to accept the idea that the
strategy of tension, the strategy of false flag, is a reality. It is
easier to accept the manipulation and to say: "I have kept informed for
30 years, and I have never heard about these criminal armies. The
Muslims are attacking us; this is why we fight against them."
Silvia Cattori: Since
2001, the European Union has created anti-terrorist measures. Later, is
has been seen that these measures have allowed the CIA to kidnap
people, to move them to secrete places and torture them. Have the
European States become a sort of hostages to their submission to the
The European countries have had quite a weak attitude concerning the
United States after the attacks on September 11th, 2001. After having
confirmed that the secret prisons were illegal, they let them continue.
The same happened with the prisoners in Guantanamo. Many voices stood
up in Europe to say: "The prisoners cannot be deprived of a lawyer or
defence." When Mrs. Angela Merkel mentioned this question, the United
States clearly suggested that Germany was a little bit involved in
Iraq, that its secret services had contributed to prepare this war, and
therefore they must shut up.
Silvia Cattori: Within
this context, where there are still many unclear areas, what type of
security can NATO give to the peoples it is supposed to protect if it
allows the secret services to manipulate in this way?
the terrorist attacks carried out by the secret armies of the network
Gladio during the Cold War, it is important that we are able to
determine clearly which is the real implication of NATO in this, to
know what really happened. Is this about isolated acts secretly
organised by NATO? Until this day, NATO refuses to talk about the
strategy of tension and terrorism during the Cold War. NATO refuses all
questions related to Gladio.
Today, NATO is used as an offensive army, even though this
organization was not created to play that role. It was activated in
that sense on September 12th 2001, immediately after the attacks in New
York. NATO’s leaders affirm that the reason for their involvement in
the war against the Afghans is to fight against terrorism. However,
NATO is in danger of losing that war. Therefore, when that happens they
will be a big crisis, a debate. And this will allow us to know whether
NATO is really fighting a war against terrorism, or if it is trying to
create an analogous situation to that of the Cold War with the secret
army Gladio, where she had a link to terror. The next few years will
tell us if NATO has acted outside the mission that was accorded to it:
to defend the European countries and the Unites States in case of
Soviet invasion, an event that has never occurred. NATO was not funded
to take over the oil and gas of the Muslim countries.
Silvia Cattori: We
could understand that Israel, who is interested in widening the
conflicts in the Arabic and Muslim countries, encourages the United
States in that direction. But, we cannot see what it is that interests
the European countries and that makes them engage their troops in the
wars decided by the Pentagon, as was the case in Afghanistan.
I think that Europe is confused. The United States are in a strong
position, and the Europeans have a tendency to think that the best
thing is to collaborate with the strongest one. But we would have to
think about this more thoroughly. The European politicians give in
easily to the pressure put by the US, who is always asking for more
troops in this or that front. The more the European countries give in,
the more they subordinate, and the more they will find themselves
confronted to bigger and bigger problems. In Afghanistan the Germans
and the British are under the command of the American army.
Strategically, it is not an interesting position for these countries.
Now, the US has asked the Germans to engage their soldiers in the South
of Afghanistan as well, in the areas were the battle is the hardest. If
the Germans accept, they take the risk of being massacred by the Afghan
forces which refuse the presence of any king of occupier. _ Germany
should ask itself seriously whether she should not rather withdraw
their 3000 soldiers from Afghanistan. But, for the Germans, to disobey
the US’ orders, to which they are a bit like lieges, it is a very hard
step to make.
Silvia Cattori: How
much do our current government know today about the strategy of tension
? Can they just let the war-doers foment coups d’état, kidnap and
torture people without reacting? Have they any means to stop these
I do not know. As an historian, I observe and take notes. As a
political adviser, I always say that one must never give in to the
manipulations that try to induce fear and to make people believe that
the "terrorists" are always the Muslims; I say that this is about a
struggle for controlling the energy resources; that some means of
surviving the lack of energy must be found without needing to go to a
militarization. Problems cannot be solved in this way; they only become
Silvia Cattori: When
we observe the demonisation of the Arabs and Muslims in the conflict
between Israel and Palestine, we might think that this does not have
anything to do with the oil.
No. In this case not. But, in the US perspective, it is definitely
about taking control of the energy reserves of the Eurasian block that
is situated in a ’strategic ellipse’ that goes from Azerbaijan to Saudi
Arabia, Iraq, Kuwait and the Persian Gulf, passing through Turkmenistan
and Kazakhstan. It is precisely over there, in that region where this
false war ’against terrorism’ is taking place, that the biggest oil and
gas reserves are concentrated. In my opinion, it is not about anything
else but a geo-strategic game inside which the European Union can do
nothing but lose. Because, if the US takes hold of the resources, and
the energy crisis becomes worse, it will tell them: "You want gas, you
want oil. Very well, in exchange we want this and that." The US is not
going to give the oil and gas for free to the European countries. A few
people know that the "peak oil", the maximum production of oil in
Europe - the production to Norway and Great Britain - is declining.
The day when people will realise that these wars ’against
terrorism’ are manipulated, and that the accusations against the
Muslims are, among other things, propaganda, they are going to be
surprised. The European countries must wake up and understand once and
for all how the strategy of tension works. And they must also learn to
say "no" to the US. Moreover, in the US also, there are many people who
do not want this militarizing of the international relationships.
Silvia Cattori: You have also done some research on the attacks that took place in September 11th 2001 and you have signed a book 
jointly with other intellectuals who worry about the inconsistencies
and contradictions of the official version of these events, as well as
the conclusions of the commission of survey ordered by Mr. Bush. Do you
not fear being accused of being a "conspiracy theorist"?
My students and other people have always asked me : if this "war
against terrorism" concerns indeed the oil and gas, the 911 attacks
have also been manipulated, haven’t they? Or is it a coincidence that
Osama Ben Laden’s Muslims have struck exactly at the precise moment
that the occidental countries were starting to understand that an oil
crisis was announcing itself?
Therefore, I became interested in what had been written about
September 11th and I also studied the official report that was
presented in 2004. When we dig into this subject, we realize from the
start that there is a big worldwide debate around what really happened
on 911. The information that we have is not very precise. What makes
one question this 600 page report is that the third tower that
collapsed on that day is not even mentioned. The commission only talks
about the collapsing of two towers, the Twin Towers. But there is a
third 170 meters high tower that collapsed too; the WTC 7 tower. A
small fire is mentioned concerning it. I have talked to professors who
know very well the building structures; they say that a small fire
cannot destroy such a big structure. The official story of 911 and the
commission’s conclusions, are not reliable. This lack of clarity puts
the researchers in a difficult situation. The confusion predominated as
well about what really happened at the Pentagon. In the pictures that
we have, it is very difficult to see a plane. We cannot see how a plane
would have fallen there.
Silvia Cattori: The
Venezuelan Government has asked the US for further explanations to
clarify the origin of the attacks. Would this not be the example to
There are many uncertainties about September 11th. Politicians, members
of the academia and citizens can all claim to explain what really
happened. I think that it is important to continue asking questions. It
is an event that no one can forget; everybody remembers where he/she
was at that precise moment. It is unbelievable that five years later,
we still cannot see clearly what happened.
Silvia Cattori: It
is almost as if none of the structures created wanted to doubt the
official version. Is it possible that they let themselves be
manipulated by the lack of information organized by the ones who
organize the strategy of the tension and the False flags?
We are prone to manipulation if we are afraid. Afraid of losing the
respect from the people that we love. We cannot go out of this spiral
of violence and terror if we let the fear take over. It is normal to be
afraid, but we must overtly talk about this fear and about the
manipulations that generate it. Nobody can escape their consequences.
This is even more serious when the politicians in charge react often
under the effect of fear. One must find the strength to say: "Yes, I am
afraid to know that these lies make people suffer; yes, I am afraid to
think that there is less oil left; yes, I am afraid to think that this
terrorism they talk about is the consequence of manipulations, but I
will not let myself become intimidated."
Silvia Cattori: Up to what extent do countries like Switzerland participate, right now, in this strategy of tension?
I do not think there is any strategy of tension in Switzerland. This
country does not know any terrorist attacks. But, it is true that, in
Switzerland as everywhere else, the politicians are afraid of the US
and its strong position, and they have a tendency to say to themselves:
"They are good friends, we’d better not fight against them."
Silvia Cattori: Doesn’t
this way of thinking and of covering up the lies that arise from the
strategy of tension make everyone an accomplice of the crimes that it
causes? To start with the journalists and the political parties?
I personally think that everyone - journalists, professors, politicians
- must think about the implications of the strategy if tension and the
false flag. Here we are, indeed, in presence of phenomena that escape
from every kind of agreement. That is why, every time that there are
terrorist attacks, we must ask questions and try to understand what
that implies. It is only on the day that we officially admit that the
false flags are a reality, that it will be possible for us to create a
list of the false flags that took place in history and to agree upon
what should be done.
The subject that interests me is how to achieve peace. It is
important to open a debate on the strategy of tension and to take
cognizance of the fact that this is a very real phenomenon. Since as
long as we do not recognize its existence, we cannot act. That is why
it is important to explain what the strategy of tension truly means.
And, once we have understood, we must not let fear and hatred against
one group win. We must say to ourselves that it is not only one country
that is involved in this; that it is not only the United States, Italy,
Israel or the Iranians, but that it occurs everywhere. Even if certain
countries participate in a more intensive way than others. We must
understand, without blaming one country or one person. Fear and hatred
do not help us to advance, they paralyse the debate. I see many
accusations against the Unites States, against Israel and against great
Britain, or alternatively against Iran and Syria. But the search for
peace teaches us that one must not get lost in accusations based on
nationalism, and that neither hatred nor fear are needed; that the most
important thing is to explain the reality. And this comprehension will
be beneficial for everybody.
Silvia Cattori: Why
is your book about NATO’s secret armies published in English,
translated into English, Turk, Slovenian and soon Greek, but it is not
published in French?
I haven’t found any publisher in France, yet. If any publisher happens
to be interested in publishing my book, I will be very pleased to see
it being issued in French.